Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data

Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

Urho M Kujala, chief physician,a Simo Taimela, research assistant,a Ilkka Antti-Poika, consultant orthopaedic surgeon,a Sakari Orava, consultant orthopaedic surgeon,a Risto Tuominen, senior researcher,b Pertti Myllynen, senior lecturer in orthopaedics and traumatology c
a Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Toolo Sports Hall, Mannerheimintie 17, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland, b Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FIN-00290, Helsinki, c Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FIN-00260 Helsinki

Correspondence to: Dr Kujala.


Objective: To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports.
Design: Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data.
Setting: Finland during 1987-91.
Subjects: 621691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate.
Main outcome measures: Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors.
Results: 54186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability.
Conclusions: Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.

Key messages
* Many sports injuries result from true accidents but others are preventable
* Injury rates are low in child athletes and highest in young adults
* Every sport has a specific injury profile
* Preventive measures should be specific to the sport concerned and include those aimed at decreasing the number of violent contacts between athletes

Article on the Internet, BMJ 1995;311:1465-1468 (2 December)

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Study on Mechanism of Injury Generation and Reduction Therapy

Study on Mechanism of Injury Generation and Reduction Therapy based on Judo forms caled as Kata

Takashi Watanabe
sugiura@shadan-nissei.or.jp / masa@jvb.co.jp
Japan Judo Therapist Association

The techniques of Hiza-gatame (knee lock) and Hara-gatame (stomach lock) called as Kime-no-Kata aim at a positioning of elbow joints to cause a dislocation. Here, the underlying mechanism for the dislocation theory and reduction theory were investigated from the aspects of Kansetsu-waza (joint techniques).
We examined the mechanisms focusing on the motion of body and the positioning of joints as well as power direction and its timing in relation to Judo-Seifuku therapy and verify the mechanism through Judo techniques in practice. Kime-no-Kata in Judo mainly consists of Atemi-waza (striking techniques) and Kansetsu-waza (joint techniques), and also includes Nage-waza (throwing techniques) and Katame-waza (grappling techniques). Their offensive and defensive techniques are essential for waza. These waza are able to verify the individual motion by actually reproducing the respective components. The techniques of Suriage (knee lock) and Tukkomi (stomach lock) aim to let the opponent loose balance utilizing the offensive force while keeping one’s own balance, resulting that direct and indirect forces are loaded on the opponent’s elbow joints. The force produced by Kansetsu-waza is able to easily induce a dislocation in an instance via the action of moment applying the principle of leverage. When compared with the
conventional reduction procedures in clinical practice and Roser’s procedures that retrospectively follow
the generation process of dislocation, these procedures for Seifuku therapy are basically coincident except for a loading of excessive extension on the elbow joint. Kansetsu-waza, a decisive technique form called as Kime-no-Kata aims to take a posture of dislocation by effectively loading an external force. The dislocation generation theory (injury generation mechanism) and the theory of Judo reduction therapy retrospectively following the generation process of dislocation from the aspect of kinetics were reviewed to clarify the respective characteristics. Thus, Judo-Seifuku theory was introduced through conversely tracing the individual motions of Kansetsu-waza.

In: Annals of the 5th International Judo Federation World Research Symposium Sept 12th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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